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The U.S. correctional population has grown six-fold since 1970, an historically unprecedented growth in formal social control for a democratic society.

More than 80% of those convicted of crimes who are under correctional authority reside in the community, and well over 95% of those who are incarcerated will eventually return to the community.

The effectiveness of correctional policies for those who are behind bars and those who in the community is a central concern of the criminal justice system.